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Recalling the themes dealt with at ACSD-5 in October 2007, Ali Mohamed, Chair of ACSD-5, noted the centrality of land in all the ACSD-5 themes as well as its relevance to sustainable development in Africa. Highlighting the situation in Kenya, he noted that a number of countries are facing challenges revolving around land and land policy. He called on participants to move beyond rhetoric and develop a concrete position for Africa for CSD-16 by stressing “specific-point statements” on the way forward and ways in which to involve the international community. Josué Dioné, Director, of the Food Security and Sustainable Development Division, ECA, on behalf of ECA Executive Director Abdoulie Janneh, welcomed the participants.

A large number of heterogeneous buyers and sellers, combined with the difficulties of monitoring, reporting and verification of emissions from biological systems introduce potentially high levels of complexity. Effective policies, therefore, depend on advanced MRV systems which are lacking in many countries (Wilkes et al. 2017)568. This is discussed in more detail in the case study on the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme. This chapter builds on earlier assessments the continuum hoi hup in several chapters of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, and the IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C .

Policy mixes that allow people to respond to disasters include bankruptcy, insolvency rules, house protection from creditors, income minimums, and basic agricultural implement protection laws. The portfolio of policies allows people to recover and, if necessary, migrate to other areas and occupations. For instance, the 1997 Red River Basin flood cost Manitoba, Canada 1 billion USD and the USA 4 billion USD in terms of impact on agriculture and food production.

Some participants noted that discrimination takes various forms including religion, gender, class, and ethnicity and that it is a problem in multi-ethnic societies. Others suggested that perceptions of unfairness when the land is initially acquired also matter. Participants debated the causes of urbanization, with some arguing that rural-urban migration is the key cause and others claiming it is secondary, emphasizing urban growth instead.

Compared to freehold and leasehold tenure systems, which have a higher level of security, most lands in the customary system are not registered so there is no tenure security. For example, Kasimbazi examined how land-tenure systems are linked to earth degradation or sustainable land management in different ecosystems and bio-cultural regions around the world. There are multiple reasons for studying land distribution programs, as they are successful in improving agricultural infrastructure and decreasing land inequality. The potential benefits of land distribution programs include reduced shareholding distortions, agency costs for hired labor, and better access to credit.

It is estimated that, in four years, it would have distributed 6.9–12 billion USD per year to states in proportion to their 2013 forest cover, amounting to around 174–303 USD per hectare of forest per year. State governments in India now have a sizeable fiscal incentive based on the extent of forest cover at the time of policy implementation, contributing to the achievement of India’s climate mitigation and forest conservation goals. India’s tax revenue distribution reform has created the world’s first EFTs for forest conservation, and a potential model for other countries.

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